The term "probiotics" literally means "for life" (in relation to a living organism), in contrast to the term "antibiotics" ("against life"). Disruption of human and animal microbiocenoses due to widespread use of antibiotics caused the emergence of resistance to pathogenic microflora.

Gibson і Robefroid name "probiotics" the living microorganisms (for example, cultures of living bacteria in yoghurt), which must be in enough amount, remain stable and viable both at their storage and after introduction to the organism; must adapt themselves in the organism and render favorable influence on its health. The same authors first suggested to use along with the term of "probiotics" and term "prebiotics".

Unlike probiotics, prebiotics are the substances or dietary ingredients which preferentially stimulate the growth and biological activity of microorganisms in the intestine, positively influencing, in its turn, on composition of microbiocenosis.

Substances that can stimulate the growth of normal microflora are analyzed, and it is proposed to divide prebiotics into the following groups:

 monosaccharides and alcohols (xylose, xylobiose, rsfinose, sorbitum and other);
 oligosaccharides (lactulose, fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide, xylooligosaccharide and other);
 polysaccharides (pectins, dextrin, inulin and other);
 enzymes (β-galactosidase of microbal origin, proteases of saccharomycetes and others.);
 peptids (soy-bean, milk);
 antioxidants (vitamins of group B, vitamin Е, ascorbic acid), and also other bioactive additives - amino acids, vegetable extracts, organic acids et cetera.

Most researchers prefer to use live cultures of microorganisms as part of probiotics. Most often, bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria, in particular lactobacilli, are used. These probiotics are called classical, as they are based on strains isolated from the human intestine and dominating it since the first days of life.

In recent years, spore-forming bacteria of the genus Bacillus as the most prominent representatives of exogenous microflora have attracted the attention of researchers. A sufficiently large arsenal of species of this genus was tested as therapeutic agents in the treatment of acute and chronic infections: В. cereus, В. polymyxa, В. coagulans, В. brevis, В. megaterium, В. pumilus, В. laterosporus etc. However, the most species of В. subtilis і В. licheniformis have been fully and comprehensively studied.

When creating probiotic preparations, strains tested for symbioticity and resistance to survival under adverse conditions should be selected. In addition, it is very important that probiotic cultures complement each other in biological activity, exhibiting the effect of synergism in the drug during microbiotherapy. It is important, when selecting strains, to take into account their adaptability under production conditions and stability during cultivation, taking into account the preservation of properties during subsequent technological cycles. This ensures that commercial probiotics are highly effective when used.

Probiotics of the new generation include drugs based on recombinant strains of microorganisms with desired properties.

Thus, the beneficial properties of fermented milk products with probiotic activity, along with the antagonism of breeding strains of starter microorganisms to infectious agents, are realized both through stimulation of biochemical processes in the macroorganism and through the mechanism of non-specific immunostimulation.

Thus, the beneficial properties of fermented milk products with probiotic activity, along with the antagonism of breeding strains of starter microorganisms to infectious agents, are realized both through stimulation of biochemical processes in the macroorganism and through the mechanism of non-specific immunostimulation.

Types and strains of microorganisms that make up probiotics
LactobacillusL. acidophilusL. gasseri
L. rhamnosusL. ramnosus GG
L. plantarumL. plantarum 299 v
L. reuteri
L. fermentumL. fermentum KLD
L. lactis
L. caseiL. Shirota
L. bulgaricum
BifidobacteriumB. longum B.infantis; BB536
B. bifidum
B. breve
B. adolescentis
B. animalis B.lactis Bb 12
Streptococcus S.thermophylus
EnterococcusE. faeciumEnterococcus SF68
Saccharomyces S.boulardi


Bifidumbacterin contains a freeze-dried mass of probiotic bacteria of Bifidobacterium bifidum №1 of at least 1•108 microorganisms in a single dose and vial in 5 and 10 doses in vials.

Its distinctive feature is the pleasant taste and ease of use by children and adults with intestinal infections, intestinal dysbiosis of various nature, digestive disorders.

Active ingredient: dried mass of living bacteria of the antagonistically active strain of Bifidobacterium bifidum №1 at least 1•108 microorganisms in a single dose.
Release form: freeze-dried crystalline or porous mass of 5 and 10 doses in bottles or bags.

The prevalence of bifidoflora in microbiocenosis after the use of the drug normalizes the activity of the gastrointestinal tract, improves metabolic processes, stimulates the functional activity of the digestive system, prevents the development of protracted forms of intestinal diseases, and increases the nonspecific resistance of the body.

Indications for use:

 treatment and prevention of intestinal dysbiosis that occurs as a result of antibacterial, hormonal, radiation and other types of therapy;
 complex treatment of acute infectious intestinal diseases (dysentery, salmonellosis, escherichiosis, viral diarrhea, etc.);
 treatment of convalescents after acute intestinal infections;
 treatment of intestinal dysfunctions of staphylococcal and unknown etiology;
 complex treatment of acute and chronic intestinal diseases (enterocolitis, colitis) with microflora disturbance.
Mode of application:
agedosageorder of application
Infants from the risk group (from the first hours of life)1-2,5 doses3 times per a day
Up to 6 months5 doses2-3 times per a day
Up 6 months to 3 years5 doses3-4 times per a day
Up 3 to 7 years5 doses3-5 times per a day
Older than 7 years and adults5-10 doses3-4 times per a day

Course of treatment: For intestinal diseases - 2-3 weeks, for prophylactic purposes - 5 doses 1-2 times a day for 2-3 weeks.
Side effects: Not described.
Contraindications: Not established.

Bifidumbacterin quickly restores the disturbed intestinal microflora, is suitable for adults and children, including newborns and pregnant women, it is easily soluble, tastes good.


Probiotics are the agents for recovering of microbiocenosiss. According to the determination of WOHP/FAO probiotics - the living microorganisms, applied in adequate amounts, rendering the health effect on the man organism.

There are a lot of microorganisms in a man organism. The places of microorganisms habitat are the mucous covers of a man, thus microorganisms fasten onto only to the certain receptors. The amount of such receptors is limited, therefore microorganisms, coming with probiotics, occupy only that amount of receptors which are free. Other microorganisms of the probiotic do not fasten onto the epithelium of intestine, remain in the lumen of bowel and in the definite period of time they are excreted from the organism. Thus, at taking probiotics the overdoses of preparation can not occur, but their long taking does not cause "substitution effect" and other negative consequences.

Flu and cold are widespread viral diseases which can infect, as a rule, people with poor immune status. Numerous clinical tests proved that probiotics stimulate the immune system regardless of the reason of immunodeficiency. Thus probiotics normalize the different levels of the immune system - both local immunity of mucous membranes and humoral or general immunity. In addition, bacteria, contained in probiotics, have another weapon for the fight against viruses - enzymes of DNAse and ribonuclease.

Today one of the reasons of development of gastritis and ulcerous affections of stomach and duodenum is the infection by specific microorganism - helicobacter (Helicobacter pylori). Accordingly the treatment of such diseases foresees the use of preparations with antibacterial activity, i.e. antibiotics. However even the use of strong antibiotics in therapy of helicobacterdependent diseases does not lead to full elimination of helicobacter, at the same time so powerful antibacterial therapy violates the microbiocenosis of a man and results in intestine disbiosis and other mucous membranes. Therefore at treatment of helicobacterdependent diseases (gastritis, ulcerous illness of stomach and duodenum) application of probiotics is indicated at least on two reasons:
● the use of probiotics in the treatment regimen of afore-named diseases increases efficiency of eradication of helicobacter;
● the use of probiotics on the stage of antibacterial therapy prevents the development of dysbacteriosis of different mucous membranes of a man.

Antibiotics are not as harmless as many of us are used to thinking and have a lot of side effects. By the structure of the cell, pathogens do not differ from bacteria of normal microflora. Therefore, an antibiotic, killing the causative agent of the disease, kills the normal microflora. As a result, intestinal dysbiosis develops, which has a lot of clinical manifestations and adversely affects the functioning of various human organs and systems. An additional positive effect of taking probiotics with antibacterial therapy is the protection of the liver from the negative effects of antibacterial preparations.

Probiotics for a pregnant woman are needed in order to ensure normal microbiocenosis of the unborn baby. The microbes that populate the birth canal are the first microbes that a baby will encounter. Nature stipulates that these be Doderlein sticks - lactic acid microorganisms. Probiotics are recommended for use in the first and last trimester of pregnancy. Methods of administration - both per os and intravaginally (after consultation with an obstetrician-gynecologist). It is also necessary to take probiotics during pregnancy so that after the birth of the baby, the mother does not have a constant conditionally pathogenic microflora in the intestine. Studies have shown the effectiveness of using probiotics in the form of applications on the breast of a pregnant woman to prevent the development of mastitis in her.