During the last years the organism of man and animals is exposed to influence of whole complex of unfavorable factors, influencing on the normal functioning of the basic systems of vital functions. From one side, influence of the worsened ecological situation, increase of amount of stress situations, and from other side the mass uncontrolled application of chemotherapeutic preparations, including antibiotics. In this connection the questions about the methods of constructing and renewal of optimum microflora appeared, i.e. microecology and endoecology of microorganism.
In scientific literature and official records relating to the problems of mocroecology and also in everyday life the biotherapy enjoys wide popularity. In theory this concept exists already for a long time and it was first described by I.I. Mechnikov who found out positive effect rendered by lactic acid bacteria on the organism of a man.
Biotherapy includes concepts "probiotics", "prebiotics", "probiotic products".
“Fuller interprets the concept "probiotics" as living microorganisms“ During many years there were a few interpretations of term "probiotic". Lilly and Stillwell first used this term in 1965 for notation of metabolites, produced by one microorganisms for stimulation of growth of the others. The term "probiotics" in a word for word translation means "for life" (in relation to a living organism), unlike the term "antibiotics" ("against life"). Because of wide use of antibiotics the violation of microbiocenosis of organism of man and animal entailed the appearance of stability of pathogenic microflora to them. Parker offered the term "probiotics" for notation of natural adjuvants - living microorganisms, introduction of which to the organism promotes the maintenance and renewal of biological balance of its normoflora and renders the positive action on it. Fuller interprets the concept "probiotics" as living microorganisms which at introduction to the forages of animals or in the complement of food of man (yoghurts) positively affect the organism by making healthy microflora of intestine.
Gibson and Robefroid name "probiotics" the living microorganisms (for example, cultures of living bacteria in yoghurt), which must be in enough amount, remain stable and viable both at their storage and after introduction to the organism; must adapt themselves in the organism and render favorable influence on its health. The same authors first suggested to use along with the term of "probiotics" and term "prebiotics". Unlike probiotics, prebiotics are the substances or dietary ingredients which preferentially stimulate the growth and biological activity of microorganisms in the intestine, positively influencing, in its turn, on composition of microbiocenosis.
Shenderov with coauthors analyzed the substances, able to stimulate the growth of normal microflora, and suggested to divide the prebiotics into the followings groups:
○ monosaccharides and alcohols (xylose, xylobiose, rsfinose, sorbitum and other);
○ oligosaccharides (lactulose, fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide, xylooligosaccharide and other);
○ polysaccharides (pectins, dextrin, inulin and other);
○ enzymes (β-galactosidase of microbal origin, proteases of saccharomycetes and others.);
○ peptids (soy-bean, milk);
○ antioxidants (vitamins of group B, vitamin Е, ascorbic acid), and also other bioactive additives - amino acids, vegetable extracts, organic acids et cetera.
“complexes of probiotics with prebiotics substances can be combined creating new bioactive preparations“ Some authors consider that complexes of probiotics with prebiotic substances can be combined creating new bioactive preparations "synbiotics", in which living microorganisms are combined with substrates that stimulate their growth. In composition of such preparations the prebiotic must, without joining in metabolism of microorganism, serve as the starting component of its growth. Thus, briefly describing new terms and definitions that appeared in area of microbiotherapy application, we will consider mainly probiotics, their constructing and possibility of the use with the purpose of normalization of microbal ecosystem of the organism of a man and animals.
The enormous amount of probiotic preparations and scientific publications characterizing their efficiency appeared during the last years. One of the review basic difficulties of present literature information is the large variety of the studied microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. cereus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. plantarum, L.. fermentum, L..salivarius, L.. casei, L.. rhamnosus, L.. reuteri, Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. longum, B. adolescentis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, Saccharomyces boulardii and other. Besides, the authors use different combinations of these microorganisms and also forms of application. But to regard these preparations as probiotics it is possible in case if any living or killed microorganisms, their structural components, metabolits, rendering the positive influence on functioning of microflora of the owner, promotes their best adaptation to the conditions of environment in a concrete ecological niche. In this plan most researchers prefer to apply the living cultures of microorganisms in probiotics composition. The bifidobakteria and lactobacillus are used more frequent, in particular lactobacillus. These probiotics are called classic, because they are based on cultures isolated from the man's intestine and which are dominant in since the first days of his life. Besides, the high capacity for colonization of epithelium of digestive tract is inherent to lactobacillus and bifidobacteria that serves as the protective barrier on the way of pathogenic microflora penetration and, in its turn, provides stabilizing of normal composition of intestine microbiocenosis.
“probiotic properties... inherent to other representatives of normal microflora“ At the same time there are enough facts testifying that probiotic properties, though transient, are inherent to other representatives of normal microflora, the habitat of which is not the intestine, but natural and production substrates. The representatives of genus of Streptococcus, Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Propionibacterium, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, belong to them, which enter into the composition of ferments for the receiving of the fermented soul-milk products with probiotic properties (yoghurts, soft and hard cheeses, thick sour milk et cetera).
Collibacillus began to be applied as basis of biologics yet since 1918 in composition of mutaflora. The efficiency of the preparation was bound to the sharp reducing of toxic substancies formation in the intestine under the influence of the normalized intestinal microflora. In the USSR for development of new probiotic the culture Е.coli M-17 was applied which was grown on milk. "Koliprostokvasha" had short shelf life and did not get large distribution.
Nowadays the new forms of colibacterin - pills, capsules, suppositories - are developed. Collibacillus are the basis of the other preparations - normoflorin, colifloran, sevacol, mutaflor, normoflor.
Many works are devoted to probiotics on the basis of representatives of genus Aerococcus. It is reported also about the application of yeasts for the production of probiotics. So, the treatment with preparation which includes Saccharomyces boulardii, appeared effective at intestinal infections, conditioned by Clostridium difficile. The expressed clinical effect was received also at the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
During last years the spore-forming bacteria of genus Bacillus as the brightest representatives of exogenous microflora attract the attention of researchers. Many types of this genus were tested as therapeutic agents at treatment of sharp and chronic infections: B. cereus, B. polymyxa, B. coagulans, B. brevis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, B. laterosporus and other. However most completely and fundamental the types of B. subtilis and B. licheniformis are studied.
“substantiation of probiotic preparations constructing reveals new aspects of mutual relations of macro- and microorganism“ Abroad the probiotics consisting of a few types of microorganisms, belonging to different genus become popular. The authors substantiate the omposition of such probiotics on the different positive action on people health. The mechanism of action of probiotic effect is interpreted variously and depends on composition of probiotic's microflora. The scientific substantiation of probiotic preparations constructing reveals the new aspects of mutual relations of macro- and microorganism. They come mainly to the following: the main thing is safety of cultures intended for their introduction in the composition of probiotics; the presence of antagonistic properties to the competitive, including pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microflora; stability to the antibiotics, most intensively used in antibiotic therapy; the ability of probiotic microorganisms actively to assimilate the wide spectrum of nutrients (for oral probiotics) which are in the digestive tract as a result of biochemical processes of gastrointestinal digestion in the organism of man and animals; the presence of adhesive activity in relation to the epithelium cells of digestive tract of man and animals or to the epithelium of other biotopes to which the probiotic preparation is prescribed; more high, as compared to a commensal microflora, specific speed of growth of probiotic cultures allowing them quick to assimilate nourishing substrate, and consequently, to increase the productivity of probiotic cultures' cells.
“probiotics construct on ability of cultures to product bioactive substances“ The permanent being in concrete biotope (oral cavity, intestine, vaginal channel and other) of enough amounts of probiotic cells, fastened to its wall, prevents penetration of pathogenic microorganisms in ephithelial cells. Besides, probiotic microorganisms create unfavorable environments for pathogens рН, "conquering" this micro niche. The disbalance of microflora, which was broken at dysbacteriosis, is leveled in such a way. Probiotic cultures must possess stability to the logical enzymes of saliva (lysozyme) and to the digestive enzymes (pepsin, lipasa), the stability to the bile. Probiotics construct on ability of cultures to product bioactive substances: vitamins, amino acids, antitoxins et cetera.
At creation of probiotic preparations the cultures (strains) must be selected which were tested on symbiotic and stability to the survival in unfavorable terms. Besides, it is very important that probiotic cultures complement each other on biological activity showing the effect of synergism in the preparation during the carrying out of microbiotherapy. It is important at the selection of cultures to take into account their manufacturability in production conditions and stability at cultivation taking into account the safety of properties at subsequent technological cycles. It guarantees high efficiency of commercial probiotics at their use.
During last years works appeared which considerably extended the range of criteria of estimation of biological activity of representatives of normal microflora, which are offered for introduction of cultures in the composition of probiotics. One of major criteria is the immunomodulating action of probiotics. Some researchers bind this effect of probiotic cultures to stimulation or products of endogenous interferon. In addition, the search of cultures with the most expressed immunogenic properties is actively conducted.
To probiotics of new generation belong the preparations the basis of which are recombinant cultures of microorganisms with the set properties.
“attracts the development of food stuffs with the use as bioadditives the living cultures of microorganisms“ During last years the development of food stuff with the use of living cultures of microorganisms as bioadditives, so-called probiotic products, attracts great attention of researchers. The strategy in creation of these products is directed foremost on filling of physiological necessity of organism of a man in separate bioactive substances. One of the ways of solving this problem is the creation of different products on milk basis. The introduction in the composition of sour-milk products of specially selected cultures of lactobacillus, bifidobacteria promotes the best assimilation of calcium in the organism of people of different age groups, the decline of cholesterol level in blood, provides the physiological requirements of organism in vitamins, amino acids, antioxidants, activates formation of microbal lactase.
Thus, useful properties of sour-milk products with probiotic activity, along with antagonism of selected cultures of ferment microorganisms to the infectious agents, will be realized both through the stimulation of biochemical processes in the macroorganism and through the mechanism of nonspecific immunostimulation.
Undoubtedly, at present the "gold standard" in biotherapy and prophylaxis of disoder of microbiocenose of different biotopes of man organism is the application of probiotics which regulate the normal microflora of gastrointestinal tract. Just probiotics are effective for renewal of normoflora balance of oral cavity and urogenital system. Probiotics serve as the important and necessary defense instrument of organism at influence of unfavorable ecological conditions, metabolic disbalance after hormonal, radial and antibacterial therapy, at sharp and chronic diseases and dysfunctions of the digestive system caused by the unbalanced nutrition, stresses.